Only Holding All to Account in Ethiopia Will Ensure its Survival

On Nov. 2, 2022, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (GoE) and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) signed a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (CoHA) to end the war. In late August, Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Amhara forces launched the second phase of a brutal scorch-earth campaign and militarily took control of several important urban centres of Tigray, such as Shire, Axsum, Adawa, Korem, and Alamata. If the CoHA does not hold, and early signs indicate that it may not, human rights groups fear that another attempt to wipe out those who resist will follow as happened in the first phase of the war in 2020 and 2021. And while the atrocity crimes continue to escalate, the push for justice and accountability has remained elusive. Governments such as the United States and European countries and institutions like the United Nations Security Council and African Union Peace and Security Council need to do more to promote the rule of law and hold all parties to the conflict to account.

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